An alphabetical list of all scientific publications referenced on this website.  

Berryman, S., McCune, B. 2006. Estimating epiphytic macrolichen biomass from topography, stand structure and lichen community data. J. Veg. Sci.17:157-170.

Betts, M.G., Phalan, B., Frey, S,J.K., Rousseau, J.S., Yang, Z. 2018. Old-growth forests buffer climate-sensitive bird populations from warming. Divers. Distrib. 439–447.

Bois, C.H., Janzen, D.T. Sanborn, P.T., Fredeen, A.L. 2009. Contrasting total carbon stocks between ecological site series in a subboreal spruce research forest in central British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 39:897-907.

Bonan, G. B. 2008. Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449.

Braumandl, T., Holt, R. 2000. Redefining definitions of old growth to aid in locating old-growth forest reserves. In Proceedings, From Science to Management and Back: A Science Forum for Southern Interior Ecosystems of British Columbia. C. Hollstedt, K. Sutherland, T. Innes, eds. S. Int. For. Ext. & Res. Partnership. p. 41–44.

British Columbia Ministry of Forests. 1990. Old-growth forests: problem analysis. Research Branch, Victoria, BC. 135 p.

Buotte, P.C., Law, B.E., Ripple, W.J., Berner, L.T. 2020. Carbon sequestration and biodiversity co-benefits of preserving forests in the western United States. Ecol. Appl. 30(2):e02039. 10.1002/eap.2039

Canadell, J.G., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Field, C.B., Buitenhuis, E.T., Ciais, P., et al. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science104:18866-18870.

Cederholm, C., Kunze, M., Murota, T., Sibatani, A. 1999. Pacific salmon carcasses: essential contributions of nutrients and energy for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Fisheries 24:6–15.

Chase, J.M. 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328:1388–1391.

Chen, J., Franklin, J.F., Spies, T.A. 1993. Contrasting microclimates among clearcut, edge, and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agric. For. Meteorol. 63:219-237.

Convention on Biological Diversity. 2011. Conference of the Parties Decision X/2: Strategic plan for biodiversity and the Aichi biodiversity targets. UNEP/CBD/COP/DEC/X/2. 2011–2020. Available from = 12268

Daniels, L.D., Gray, R.W. 2006. Disturbance regimes in coastal British Columbia. B.C. J. Ecosyst. Manag. 7: 44-56.

De Frenne, P., Zellweger, F., Rodriguez-Sanchez, F., Scheffers, B. R., Hylander, K., Luoto, M., Vellend, M., Verheyen, K., Lenoir, J. 2019. Global buffering of temperatures under forest canopies. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3:744–749.

De Frenne, P., Lenoir, J., Luoto, M., Scheffers, B.R., Zellweger, F., Aalto, J. et al. 2021. Forest microclimates and climate change: Importance, drivers and future research agenda. Glob. Chang. Biol. 27:2279–2297.

Douglas, G., Straley, G.B., Meidinger, D.V. 1998, Rare native vascular plants of British Columbia. B.C. Min. Environ. Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C. 423p.

Ecotrust and Conservation International. 1992. Coastal Temperate Rain Forests: Ecological Characteristics, Status and Distribution Worldwide. Portland, OR.

Enns, K.A., Trofymow, J.A., Goodman, D. 1999. Arboreal lichens in successional forests on southern Vancouver Island. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-382. 22 p.

Entry, J.A., Emmingham, W.H. 1998. Influence of forest age on forms of carbon in Douglas-fir soils in the Oregon Coast Range. Can. J. For. Res. 28:390-395.

Esseen, P.A., Renhorn, K.E., Pettersson, R.B. 1996. Epiphytic lichen biomass in managed and old-growth boreal forests: effect of branch quality. Ecol. Appl. 6:228-238.

Franklin, J.F., Cromack, K. Jr., Denison, W., McKee, A., Maser, C., Sedell, J., Swanson, F., Juday, G. 1981. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-118.

Franklin, J.F., Shugart, H.H.., Harmon, M.E. 1987. Tree death as an ecological process. BioScience 37(8):550-556

Fredeen, A.L., Waughtal, J.D., Pypker, T.G. 2007. When do replanted sub-boreal clearcuts become net sinks for CO2? For. Ecol. Manag. 239:210-216.

Frey, S. J. K., Hadley, A.S., Johnson, S.L., Schulze, M., Jones, J.A., Betts, M.G. 2016. Spatial models reveal the microclimatic buffering capacity of old-growth forests. Sci. Adv. 2, e1501392.

Giesen, T.W., Perakis, S.S., Cromack, K. 2008. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in the western Cascade Range of Oregon. Can. J. For. Res. 38: 2455-2464

Goodale, C.L., Apps, M.J., Birdseye, R.A., Field, C.B., Heath, L.S., Houghton, R.A., et al. 2002. Forest carbon sinks in the northern hemisphere. Ecol. Appl. 2:891-899.

Gorley, A., Merkel, G. 2020. A new future for old forests: A strategic review of how British Columbia manages for old forests within its ancient ecosystems.

Green, R.N., Klinka, K. 1994. A field guide for site identification and interpretation for the Vancouver Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 28. Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Victoria, B.C.

Harmon, M.E., Ferrell, W.K., Franklin, J.F. 1990. Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science 247: 699-702.

Hicks, B. J. 2002. Gravel galore: Impacts of clear-cut logging on salmon and their habitats. In Harvey, B. and M. MacDuffee (eds.). Ghost Runs: The future of wild salmon on the north and central coasts of British Columbia. Raincoast Conservation Society. Victoria, BC.

Hilbert, J., Wiensczyk, A. 2007. Old-growth definitions and management: A literature review. BC J. Ecosyst. Manag. 8:15–31.

iNaturalist Fairy Creek Project link:

Jönsson, M., Snäll, T. 2020. Ecosystem service multifunctionality of low-productivity forests and implications for conservation and management. J. Appl. Ecol. 57: 695–706.

Keith, H,. Mackey, B.G., Lindenmayer, D.B. 2009. Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world’s most carbon-dense forests. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.106:28 11635-11640.

Klinkenberg, B. (ed.). 2020. E-flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia []. Lab for Advanced Spatial analysis. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Law, B.E., Hudiburg, T.W., Berner, L.T., Kent, J.J., Buotte, P.C., Harmon, M.E. 2018. Land use strategies to mitigate climate change in carbon dense temperate forests. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 201720064.

Lesica, P., McCune, B, Cooper, S.V., Hong, W.S. 1991. Differences in lichen and bryophyte communities between old-growth and managed second growth forests in the Swan Valley, Montana. Can. J. Bot. 69(8):1745-1755.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Laurance, W.F., Franklin, J.F. 2012. Global decline in large old trees. Science 338:1305-1306.

Luyssaert, S., Schulze, E.-D., Börner, A, Knohl, A., Hessenmöller, D., Law, B.E., Ciais, P., Grace, J. 2008. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455:213-215.

MacKinnon A. 1998. Biodiversity and old-growth forests. In: Voller, J and S. Harrison, eds. Conservation biology principles for forested landscapes. UBC Press, Vancouver, British Columbia. pp. 146–184.

Matsuzaki, E., Sanborn, P., Fredeen, A.L., Shaw, C.H., Hawkins, C. 2013. Carbon stocks in managed and unmanaged old-growth western redcedar and western hemlock stands of Canada’s inland temperate rainforests. For. Ecol. Manag. 297:108-119.

McCune, B. 1993. Gradients in epiphyte biomass in three Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forests of different ages in western Oregon and Washington. Bryologist. Omaha, Neb.: American Bryological and Lichenological Society. Fall 1993 96:405-411.

Ministry of Forests, Mines and Lands. 2010. The State of British Columbia’s Forests, 3rd ed. Forest Practices and Investment Branch, Victoria, B.C.

Morton, C., Trenholm, R., Beukema, S., Knowler, D., Boyd, R. 2021. Economic valuation of old growth forests on Vancouver Island: Pilot study; Phase 2 – Port Renfrew Pilot. ESSA Technologies Ltd. for the Ancient Forest Alliance. Vancouver, B.C.

Parminter, J. 1995. Biodiversity guidebook – Forest Practices Code of British Columbia. B.C. Min. For. and B.C. Environ., Victoria, B.C. ix + 99 p.

Peltoniemi, M., Mäkipää, R., Liski, J., Tamminen, P. 2004. Changes in soil carbon with stand age – an evaluation of a modelling method with empirical data. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10(12):2078-2091.

Pojar, J., Hamilton, E., Meidinger, D., Nicholson, A. 1992. Old-growth forests and biological diversity in British Columbia. In: Landscape approaches to wildlife and ecosystem management. Proc. Second Symposium Canadian Society for Landscape Ecology and Management. Ingram, G.B. and Moss MR., eds. UBC, Vancouver, BC. pp. 85–97.

Pojar J. 2019. Forestry and carbon in BC. Report for Skeena Wild Conservation Trust and Skeena Watershed Conservation Coalition. Accessed Sept. 9, 2021.

Pojar, J. 2021. Old-growth forests of Fairy Creek, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Price, K., Hochachka, G. 2001. Epiphytic lichen abundance: effects of stand age and composition in coastal British Columbia. Ecol. Appl. 11(3):904-913.

Price, K., Holt, R., Daust, D. 2020. BC’s Old Growth Forests: A Last Stand for Biodiversity.

Province of B.C. 2003. British Columbia’s forests: A geographical snapshot.

Ripple, W.J., Wolf, C., Newsome, T.M., Barnard, P., Moomaw, W.R., Mass. B., Law, B.E. 2020. The climate emergency, forests, and transformative change. BioScience 70(6):446-447. https://doi.org10.1093/biosci/biaa032

Roach, W.J., Simard, S.W., Defrenne, C.E., Pickles, B.J., Lavkulich, L.M., Ryan, T.L. 2021. Tree diversity, site index, and carbon storage decrease with aridity in Douglas-fir forests in western Canada. Front. For. Glob. Change 4:682076.

Ryan, M.W., Fraser, D.F., Marshall, V.G., He, F. 2009. Successional changes in plant species diversity in forest chonosequences on southern Vancouver Island. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-421. 13 p.

Simard, S.W., Roach, W.J., Defrenne, C.E., Pickles, B.J., Snyder, E.N., Robinson, A, Lavkulich, L.M. 2020. Harvest intensity effects on carbon stocks and biodiversity are dependent on regional climate in Douglas-Fir forests of British Columbia. Front. For. Glob. Chang.

Smithwick, E.A.H., Harmon, M.E., Remillard, S.M., Acker, S.A., Franklin, J.F. 2002. Potential upper bounds of carbon stores in forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1303-1317.

Spracklen, D.V., Arnold, S.R., Taylor, C.M. 2012. Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests. Nature 489:282–285.

Stout, T. 2001. Cryptogams of the Cedar River watershed.

Suggitt, A.J., Gillingham, P.K., Hill, J.K., Huntley, B., Kunin, W.E., Roy, D.B., Thomas, C.D. 2011. Habitat microclimates drive fine-scale variation in extreme temperatures. Oikos 120:1-8.

Trofymow, J.A., Blackwell, B. 1998. Changes in ecosystem mass and carbon distributions in coastal forest chronosequences. Pgs. 40-42 In: Trofymow, J.A. and A. MacKinnon, eds. Proceedings of a Workshop on Structure, Process, and Diversity in Successional Forests of Coastal British Columbia, February 17-19, 1998, Victoria, British Columbia. Northwest Sci. 72 (special issue No. 2).

U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service. Undated. Bryophytes and lichens: Small but indispensable forest dwellers. Port Angeles, Wash.

Wang, T., Hamann, A., Spittlehouse, D., Carroll, C. 2016. Locally downscaled and spatially customizable climate data for historical and future periods for North America. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156720.

Watson, J.E.M., Evans, T., Venter, O., Williams, B., Tulloch, A., Stewart, C., et al. 2018. The exceptional value of intact forest ecosystems. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2:599-610.

Woods, C.L., Maleta, K., Ortmann, K. 2021. Plant-plant interactions change during succession on nurse logs in a northern temperate rainforest. Ecol. Evol. 11:9631-9641.