Stout, 2001

Stout, T. 2001. Cryptogams of the Cedar River watershed.

Trofymow and Blackwell, 1998

Trofymow, J.A., Blackwell, B. 1998. Changes in ecosystem mass and carbon distributions in coastal forest chronosequences. Pgs. 40-42 In: Trofymow, J.A. and A. MacKinnon, eds. Proceedings of a Workshop on Structure, Process, and Diversity in Successional Forests of Coastal British Columbia, February 17-19, 1998, Victoria, British Columbia. Northwest Sci. 72 (special issue No. 2).

Vascular plant

A vascular plant has specialized vascular tissue. There are two types of vascular tissue: xylem and phloem, which move water, nutrients, and the products of photosynthesis throughout the plant. Vascular plants include trees, seed plants and ferns.

Woods et al., 2021

Woods, C.L., Maleta, K., Ortmann, K. 2021. Plant-plant interactions change during succession on nurse logs in a northern temperate rainforest. Ecol. Evol. 11:9631-9641.