Berryman and McCune, 2006

Berryman, S., McCune, B. 2006. Estimating epiphytic macrolichen biomass from topography, stand structure and lichen community data. J. Veg. Sci.17:157-170.

Betts et al., 2018

Betts, M.G., Phalan, B., Frey, S,J.K., Rousseau, J.S., Yang, Z. 2018. Old-growth forests buffer climate-sensitive bird populations from warming. Divers. Distrib. 439–447.

Biogeoclimatic subzones

Biogeoclimatic subzones are the basic unit of climatic classification in British Columbia. Each subzone comprises a geographic area with a fairly uniform regional climate and a typical pattern of vegetation and soils. Subzones are grouped into biogeoclimatic zones to create more generalized units, and these are named after the climatic region and climatic climax plant community.

Biotic community

A biotic community is a group of organisms that live together and interact with each other within an environment or habitat. Together, the biotic community and the physical landscape (abiotic factors) make up an ecosystem.

Bois et al., 2009

Bois, C.H., Janzen, D.T. Sanborn, P.T., Fredeen, A.L. 2009. Contrasting total carbon stocks between ecological site series in a subboreal spruce research forest in central British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 39:897-907.

Braumandl and Holt, 2000

Braumandl, T., Holt, R. 2000. Redefining definitions of old growth to aid in locating old-growth forest reserves. In Proceedings, From Science to Management and Back: A Science Forum for Southern Interior Ecosystems of British Columbia. C. Hollstedt, K. Sutherland, T. Innes, eds. S. Int. For. Ext. & Res. Partnership. p. 41–44.


Bryophytes are non-vascular seedless land plants (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts). Although they exhibit specialized structures for water transportation, they have no vascular tissue or true roots.

Buotte et al., 2020

Buotte, P.C., Law, B.E., Ripple, W.J., Berner, L.T. 2020. Carbon sequestration and biodiversity co-benefits of preserving forests in the western United States. Ecol. Appl. 30(2):e02039. 10.1002/eap.2039