Canadell et al., 2007

Canadell, J.G., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Field, C.B., Buitenhuis, E.T., Ciais, P., et al. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science104:18866-18870.

Carbon Sink

Forests absorb carbon dioxide from the air through photosynthesis and the carbon is stored in trees and other components of the ecosystem. Forests also produce carbon dioxide through respiration, decay or when they burn. A forest is a carbon sink if it absorbs more carbon than it produces. Conversely, if a forest produces more carbon than it absorbs it is a carbon source.

Cederholm et al., 1999

Cederholm, C., Kunze, M., Murota, T., Sibatani, A. 1999. Pacific salmon carcasses: essential contributions of nutrients and energy for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Fisheries 24:6–15.

Chase, 2010

Chase, J.M. 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328:1388–1391.

Chen et al., 1993

Chen, J., Franklin, J.F., Spies, T.A. 1993. Contrasting microclimates among clearcut, edge, and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agric. For. Meteorol. 63:219-237.

Chronosequence study

A chronosequence study in forest sciences is a study that takes place on a set of forested sites that share similar attributes (e.g., climate and topography) but are of different ages


Cryptogams are plants that have no true flowers or seeds and reproduce by spores. They include mosses, liverworts, and lichens. Ferns are considered advanced cryptogams because they reproduce by spores but are differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.

Read more about cryptograms.


CWHvm is the abbreviation for the very wet maritime Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic subzone. The province of British Columbia is divided into 16 zones, including the Coastal Western Hemlock (CWH). A zone is a large geographic area with a relatively uniform regional climate. The CWH zone is subdivided into climatically distinct subzones, including the vm, or very wet maritime subzone. The CWHvm has a wet, humid, mild, oceanic climate and has an extensive distribution on the BC coast including western Vancouver Island.

Daniels and Gray, 2006

Daniels, L.D., Gray, R.W. 2006. Disturbance regimes in coastal British Columbia. B.C. J. Ecosyst. Manag. 7: 44-56.